Writer, journalist, diplomat, political émigré, prisoner of conscience. Received his PhD degree in history from the Jagiellonian University. Author of numerous articles and books. Until 1990, he was editor of the “Tygodnik Powszechny” weekly. Since 1990, in the Polish diplomatic service. Between 1990 and 1994, he served as deputy chief of mission and then as Charge d’affairs of the Polish Embassy in Washington. Between 1998 and 1999, he was Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, and later, between 1999 and 2003, served as the Ambassador of Poland in Israel. After that, he acted as Plenipotentiary of the Minister of Foreign Affairs for Polish-Jewish Relations. Since 2006, professor at Collegium Civitas in Warsaw. Lecturer at many Polish and foreign universities.